Belajar Swift : Cara Menggunakan Type Casting di Swift - Masnaato
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Belajar Swift : Cara Menggunakan Type Casting di Swift

Cara Menggunakan Type Casting di Swift



Untuk memvalidasi jenis instance, 'Type Casting' mulai digunakan dalam bahasa Swift 4. Ini digunakan untuk memeriksa apakah tipe instance milik kelas super atau subkelas tertentu atau didefinisikan dalam hierarkinya sendiri.

Pengecoran tipe Swift 4 menyediakan dua operator 'is' untuk memeriksa tipe nilai dan 'as' dan untuk mentransmisikan nilai tipe ke tipe yang berbeda. Pengecoran jenis juga memeriksa apakah jenis instans mengikuti standar kesesuaian protokol tertentu.

Mendefinisikan Hirarki Kelas

Jenis casting digunakan untuk memeriksa jenis instance untuk mengetahui apakah itu termasuk dalam jenis kelas tertentu. Selain itu, ia memeriksa hierarki kelas dan subkelasnya untuk memeriksa dan mentransmisikan instance tersebut untuk menjadikannya sebagai hierarki yang sama.

class Subjects {
   var physics: String
   init(physics: String) {
      self.physics = physics
   }
}

class Chemistry: Subjects {
   var equations: String
   init(physics: String, equations: String) {
      self.equations = equations
      super.init(physics: physics)
   }
}

class Maths: Subjects {
   var formulae: String
   init(physics: String, formulae: String) {
      self.formulae = formulae
      super.init(physics: physics)
   }
}

let sa = [ Chemistry(physics: "solid physics", equations: "Hertz"),
   Maths(physics: "Fluid Dynamics", formulae: "Giga Hertz")]

let samplechem = Chemistry(physics: "solid physics", equations: "Hertz")
print("Instance physics is: \(samplechem.physics)")
print("Instance equation is: \(samplechem.equations)")

let samplemaths = Maths(physics: "Fluid Dynamics", formulae: "Giga Hertz")
print("Instance physics is: \(samplemaths.physics)")
print("Instance formulae is: \(samplemaths.formulae)")

Ketika kami menjalankan program di atas menggunakan playground, kami mendapatkan hasil sebagai berikut -

Instance physics is: solid physics
Instance equation is: Hertz
Instance physics is: Fluid Dynamics
Instance formulae is: Giga Hertz

Ketik Memeriksa

Pemeriksaan jenis dilakukan dengan operator 'adalah'. Operator pemeriksaan tipe 'is' memeriksa apakah instance milik jenis subclass tertentu dan mengembalikan 'true' jika termasuk dalam instance itu, ia akan mengembalikan 'false'.

class Subjects {
   var physics: String
   init(physics: String) {
      self.physics = physics
   }
}

class Chemistry: Subjects {
   var equations: String
   init(physics: String, equations: String) {
      self.equations = equations
      super.init(physics: physics)
   }
}

class Maths: Subjects {
   var formulae: String
   init(physics: String, formulae: String) {
      self.formulae = formulae
      super.init(physics: physics)
   }
}

let sa = [
   Chemistry(physics: "solid physics", equations: "Hertz"),
   Maths(physics: "Fluid Dynamics", formulae: "Giga Hertz"),
   Chemistry(physics: "Thermo physics", equations: "Decibels"),
   Maths(physics: "Astro Physics", formulae: "MegaHertz"),
   Maths(physics: "Differential Equations", formulae: "Cosine Series")]

let samplechem = Chemistry(physics: "solid physics", equations: "Hertz")
print("Instance physics is: \(samplechem.physics)")
print("Instance equation is: \(samplechem.equations)")

let samplemaths = Maths(physics: "Fluid Dynamics", formulae: "Giga Hertz")
print("Instance physics is: \(samplemaths.physics)")
print("Instance formulae is: \(samplemaths.formulae)")

var chemCount = 0
var mathsCount = 0
for item in sa {
   if item is Chemistry {
      ++chemCount
   } else if item is Maths {
      ++mathsCount
   }
}

print("Subjects in chemistry contains \(chemCount) topics and maths contains \(mathsCount) topics")

Ketika kami menjalankan program di atas menggunakan playground, kami mendapatkan hasil sebagai berikut -

Instance physics is: solid physics
Instance equation is: Hertz
Instance physics is: Fluid Dynamics
Instance formulae is: Giga Hertz
Subjects in chemistry contains 2 topics and maths contains 3 topics

Downcasting

Men-downcast jenis subclass dapat dilakukan dengan dua operator (as? Dan as!). 'As?' mengembalikan nilai opsional ketika nilai mengembalikan nihil. Ini digunakan untuk memeriksa downcast yang berhasil.

'sebagai!' mengembalikan force unwrapping seperti yang didiskusikan dalam rangkaian opsional saat downcasting mengembalikan nilai nihil. Ini digunakan untuk memicu kesalahan runtime jika terjadi kegagalan downcast

class Subjects {
   var physics: String
   init(physics: String) {
      self.physics = physics
   }
}

class Chemistry: Subjects {
   var equations: String
   init(physics: String, equations: String) {
      self.equations = equations
      super.init(physics: physics)
   }
}

class Maths: Subjects {
   var formulae: String
   init(physics: String, formulae: String) {
      self.formulae = formulae
      super.init(physics: physics)
   }
}

let sa = [
   Chemistry(physics: "solid physics", equations: "Hertz"),
   Maths(physics: "Fluid Dynamics", formulae: "Giga Hertz"),
   Chemistry(physics: "Thermo physics", equations: "Decibels"),
   Maths(physics: "Astro Physics", formulae: "MegaHertz"),
   Maths(physics: "Differential Equations", formulae: "Cosine Series")]

let samplechem = Chemistry(physics: "solid physics", equations: "Hertz")
print("Instance physics is: \(samplechem.physics)")
print("Instance equation is: \(samplechem.equations)")

let samplemaths = Maths(physics: "Fluid Dynamics", formulae: "Giga Hertz")
print("Instance physics is: \(samplemaths.physics)")
print("Instance formulae is: \(samplemaths.formulae)")

var chemCount = 0
var mathsCount = 0

for item in sa {
   if let print = item as? Chemistry {
      print("Chemistry topics are: '\(print.physics)', \(print.equations)")
   } else if let example = item as? Maths {
      print("Maths topics are: '\(example.physics)', \(example.formulae)")
   }
}

Ketika kami menjalankan program di atas menggunakan playground, kami mendapatkan hasil sebagai berikut -

Instance physics is: solid physics
Instance equation is: Hertz
Instance physics is: Fluid Dynamics
Instance formulae is: Giga Hertz
Chemistry topics are: 'solid physics', Hertz
Maths topics are: 'Fluid Dynamics', Giga Hertz
Chemistry topics are: 'Thermo physics', Decibels
Maths topics are: 'Astro Physics', MegaHertz
Maths topics are: 'Differential Equations', Cosine Series

Typecasting: Objek Apa Saja dan Apa Saja

Kata kunci 'Any' digunakan untuk mewakili sebuah instance yang termasuk dalam tipe apapun termasuk tipe-tipe fungsi.

class Subjects {
   var physics: String
   init(physics: String) {
      self.physics = physics
   }
}

class Chemistry: Subjects {
   var equations: String
   init(physics: String, equations: String) {
      self.equations = equations
      super.init(physics: physics)
   }
}

class Maths: Subjects {
   var formulae: String
   init(physics: String, formulae: String) {
      self.formulae = formulae
      super.init(physics: physics)
   }
}

let sa = [
   Chemistry(physics: "solid physics", equations: "Hertz"),
   Maths(physics: "Fluid Dynamics", formulae: "Giga Hertz"),
   Chemistry(physics: "Thermo physics", equations: "Decibels"),
   Maths(physics: "Astro Physics", formulae: "MegaHertz"),
   Maths(physics: "Differential Equations", formulae: "Cosine Series")]

let samplechem = Chemistry(physics: "solid physics", equations: "Hertz")
print("Instance physics is: \(samplechem.physics)")
print("Instance equation is: \(samplechem.equations)")

let samplemaths = Maths(physics: "Fluid Dynamics", formulae: "Giga Hertz")
print("Instance physics is: \(samplemaths.physics)")
print("Instance formulae is: \(samplemaths.formulae)")

var chemCount = 0
var mathsCount = 0

for item in sa {
   if let print = item as? Chemistry {
      print("Chemistry topics are: '\(print.physics)', \(print.equations)")
   } else if let example = item as? Maths {
      print("Maths topics are: '\(example.physics)', \(example.formulae)")
   }
}

var exampleany = [Any]()

exampleany.append(12)
exampleany.append(3.14159)
exampleany.append("Example for Any")
exampleany.append(Chemistry(physics: "solid physics", equations: "Hertz"))

for print in exampleany {
   switch print {
      case let someInt as Int:
         print("Integer value is \(someInt)")
      case let someDouble as Double where someDouble > 0:
         print("Pi value is \(someDouble)")
      case let someString as String:
         print("\(someString)")
      case let phy as Chemistry:   
         print("Topics '\(phy.physics)', \(phy.equations)")
      default:
         print("None")
   }
}

Ketika kami menjalankan program di atas menggunakan playground, kami mendapatkan hasil sebagai berikut -

Instance physics is: solid physics
Instance equation is: Hertz
Instance physics is: Fluid Dynamics
Instance formulae is: Giga Hertz
Chemistry topics are: 'solid physics', Hertz
Maths topics are: 'Fluid Dynamics', Giga Hertz
Chemistry topics are: 'Thermo physics', Decibels
Maths topics are: 'Astro Physics', MegaHertz
Maths topics are: 'Differential Equations', Cosine Series
Integer value is 12
Pi value is 3.14159
Example for Any
Topics 'solid physics', Hertz

AnyObject

Untuk mewakili instance dari semua jenis kelas, kata kunci 'AnyObject' digunakan.

class Subjects {
   var physics: String
   init(physics: String) {
      self.physics = physics
   }
}

class Chemistry: Subjects {
   var equations: String
   init(physics: String, equations: String) {
      self.equations = equations
      super.init(physics: physics)
   }
}

class Maths: Subjects {
   var formulae: String
   init(physics: String, formulae: String) {
      self.formulae = formulae
      super.init(physics: physics)
   }
}

let saprint: [AnyObject] = [Chemistry(physics: "solid physics", equations: "Hertz"),
   Maths(physics: "Fluid Dynamics", formulae: "Giga Hertz"),
   Chemistry(physics: "Thermo physics", equations: "Decibels"),
   Maths(physics: "Astro Physics", formulae: "MegaHertz"),
   Maths(physics: "Differential Equations", formulae: "Cosine Series")]

let samplechem = Chemistry(physics: "solid physics", equations: "Hertz")
print("Instance physics is: \(samplechem.physics)")
print("Instance equation is: \(samplechem.equations)")

let samplemaths = Maths(physics: "Fluid Dynamics", formulae: "Giga Hertz")
print("Instance physics is: \(samplemaths.physics)")
print("Instance formulae is: \(samplemaths.formulae)")

var chemCount = 0
var mathsCount = 0

for item in saprint {
   if let print = item as? Chemistry {
      print("Chemistry topics are: '\(print.physics)', \(print.equations)")
   } else if let example = item as? Maths {
      print("Maths topics are: '\(example.physics)', \(example.formulae)")
   }
}

var exampleany = [Any]()
exampleany.append(12)
exampleany.append(3.14159)
exampleany.append("Example for Any")
exampleany.append(Chemistry(physics: "solid physics", equations: "Hertz"))

for print in exampleany {
   switch print {
      case let someInt as Int:
         print("Integer value is \(someInt)")
      case let someDouble as Double where someDouble > 0:
         print("Pi value is \(someDouble)")
      case let someString as String:
         print("\(someString)")
      case let phy as Chemistry:
         print("Topics '\(phy.physics)', \(phy.equations)")
      default:
         print("None")
   }
}

Ketika kami menjalankan program di atas menggunakan playground, kami mendapatkan hasil sebagai berikut -

Instance physics is: solid physics
Instance equation is: Hertz
Instance physics is: Fluid Dynamics
Instance formulae is: Giga Hertz
Chemistry topics are: 'solid physics', Hertz
Maths topics are: 'Fluid Dynamics', Giga Hertz
Chemistry topics are: 'Thermo physics', Decibels
Maths topics are: 'Astro Physics', MegaHertz
Maths topics are: 'Differential Equations', Cosine Series
Integer value is 12
Pi value is 3.14159
Example for Any
Topics 'solid physics', Hertz

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